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'Turks worse than Saddam'
From David Pratt, Foreign Editor in Erbil, Northern Iraq

Police hem in protesters

Ugly scenes as thousands take to the world's streets
By Douglas Fraser, Alan Crawford, Martin Patience and James Cusick

The shock, the awe, the deaths

Part one: It was an attack that was staggering in scope and breathtaking in intensity: and it was just the start. But what are the tactics beyond the bombs? And who is counting the human cost? Diplomatic Editor Trevor Royle analyses the first phase

Bishops' PR calls for break between Catholic Church and Celtic FC
Faith shouldn't follow a football team, says leading catholic
By Jenifer Johnston

Blair's power struggle
Part five: It may have failed to win over France, but Tony Blair's obsession with control kept anti-war party rebels at bay and will dictate what we are told about the war. Westminster Editor James Cusick reveals how he did it

Closed war debate tells Blair to push for UN role in Iraq
By Douglas Fraser

Dounreay in legal threat over leaks
Environmental watchdog may prosecute plant for 20 years of radioactive pollution
By Rob Edwards, Environment Editor

Even if it ends in victory, war can play havoc with a Prime Minister's legacy
Defeating Saddam Hussein is just the start for Blair ... history could still record a damning verdict. John Curtice reports

Fans' fury at 'biased' BBC rugby coverage
By Liam McDougall

Forces surround Basra as time runs out for devastated Baghdad
British divisions battle Iraqi resistance after waiting out early hours of conflict
By Martin Bentham with the 7th Armoured Brigade in Iraq

GM protester to have appeal heard after delay
By Alan Crawford

Godmother of punk to rock Burns festival
Notoriously confrontational, Patti Smith is just what Ayr music extravaganza needs, say organisers
By Liam McDougall, Arts Correspondent

Health fears for teen girls as stress levels double in 12 years
Middle-class teenagers at risk as academic and social pressures increase, reveals new study
By Sarah-Kate Templeton, Health Editor

Labour's very own shock and awe ... a rebellion in Dundee
The war has proved a trigger for significant changes within the Labour Party in Scotland. It will never be the same again, writes Iain Macwhirter

Lost triumph of Scottish football set for big screen
By Martin Patience

McConnell rallies 'team Scotland'
First Minister: 'We've made mistakes but now we have to put the past behind us and improve our country.'
By Douglas Fraser, Political Editor

New Higher's worth questioned
By Jenifer Johnston and Martin Patience

Now Harry Potter has got into Oxford ... the dictionary, that is
Author JK Rowling follows in footsteps of Tolkien and Carroll as 'muggle' becomes real word
By Toby McDonald

Pass the salt ... and the germ spray
Chemists develop antibody 'spice' to prevent food poisoning, but health campaigners fear threat of hygiene short cuts
By Stephen Naysmith, Science Correspondent

Personal views
Part seven: Why the figures don't add up
By Alex Salmond, MP

Radical coalition campaigns for a green future to save the economy
By Rob Edwards, Environment Editor

Revealed: the politicians hogging our works of art
Sunday Herald investigation finds MPs, MSPs and Lord Chancellor are main beneficiaries of National Galleries loans
By Liam McDougall, Arts Correspondent

Seven deaths add to coalition casualty toll; ITN man missing
By Liam McDougall

Stories from the front line
David Pratt

Teen star plays it cool as curler girl
By Liam McDougall, Arts Correspondent

Tense days spent awaiting raids
By Subhy Haddad in Baghdad

The missiles fall, and the people shrug and carry on with their lives
By Tim Judah in Baghdad

The real Saddam
Part three: With rumours of his death spreading, the personality of the Iraqi dictator could yet hold the key to the second Gulf war. Torcuil Crichton examines his rise

The rush for Baghdad
Allied forces close in as bombs leave city in darkness
Tim Judah in Baghdad, Jamie Dettmer in Washington, Torcuil Crichton, and James Cusick in London

What next for Bush?
Part four: There will be back-slapping after the victory, then George W will have to face reality ... and a re-election campaign, writes James Naughtie in Washington

With the Kurds on the Northern front
Part two: As the US and UK bomb Baghdad, Kurdish fighters and refugees anticipate the consequences with both fear and hope, reports Foreign Editor David Pratt in Erbil, Northern Iraq

World views
Part six: Europe By Angus Roxburgh

You can't make an omelette ...
By AL Kennedy

'She hath betrayed me'
Alan Taylor's Diary

'TV doctors are bad for our image'
Students attack BBC for portrayal of arrogant and pompous medics
By Sarah-Kate Templeton, Health Editor

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How did Iraq get its weapons? We sold them


THE US and Britain sold Saddam Hussein the technology and materials Iraq needed to develop nuclear, chemical and biological wea pons of mass destruction.

Reports by the US Senate's committee on banking, housing and urban affairs -- which oversees American exports policy -- reveal that the US, under the successive administrations of Ronald Reagan and George Bush Snr, sold materials including anthrax, VX nerve gas, West Nile fever germs and botulism to Iraq right up until March 1992, as well as germs similar to tuberculosis and pneumonia. Other bacteria sold included brucella melitensis, which damages major organs, and clostridium perfringens, which causes gas gangrene.

Classified US Defence Dep-artment documents also seen by the Sunday Herald show that Britain sold Iraq the drug pralidoxine, an antidote to nerve gas, in March 1992, after the end of the Gulf war. Pralidoxine can be reverse engineered to create nerve gas.

The Senate committee's rep orts on 'US Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual-Use Exports to Iraq', undertaken in 1992 in the wake of the Gulf war, give the date and destination of all US exports. The reports show, for example, that on May 2, 1986, two batches of bacillus anthracis -- the micro-organism that causes anthrax -- were shipped to the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education, along with two batches of the bacterium clostridium botulinum, the agent that causes deadly botulism poisoning.

One batch each of salmonella and E coli were shipped to the Iraqi State Company for Drug Industries on August 31, 1987. Other shipments went from the US to the Iraq Atomic Energy Commission on July 11, 1988; the Department of Biology at the University of Basrah in November 1989; the Department of Microbiology at Baghdad University in June 1985; the Ministry of Health in April 1985 and Officers' City, a military complex in Baghdad, in March and April 1986.

The shipments to Iraq went on even after Saddam Hussein ordered the gassing of the Kurdish town of Halabja, in which at least 5000 men, women and children died. The atrocity, which shocked the world, took place in March 1988, but a month later the components and materials of weapons of mass destruction were continuing to arrive in Baghdad from the US.

The Senate report also makes clear that: 'The United States provided the government of Iraq with 'dual use' licensed materials which assisted in the development of Iraqi chemical, biological and missile-system programmes.'

This assistance, according to the report, included 'chemical warfare-agent precursors, chem ical warfare-agent production facility plans and technical drawings, chemical warfare filling equipment, biological warfare-related materials, missile fabrication equipment and missile system guidance equipment'.

Donald Riegle, then chairman of the committee, said: 'UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licences issued by the Department of Commerce, and [established] that these items were used to further Iraq's chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile delivery system development programmes.'

Riegle added that, between January 1985 and August 1990, the 'executive branch of our government approved 771 different export licences for sale of dual-use technology to Iraq. I think that is a devastating record'.

It is thought the information contained in the Senate committee reports is likely to make up much of the 'evidence of proof' that Bush and Blair will reveal in the coming days to justify the US and Britain going to war with Iraq. It is unlikely, however, that the two leaders will admit it was the Western powers that armed Saddam with these weapons of mass destruction.

However, Bush and Blair will also have to prove that Saddam still has chemical, biological and nuclear capabilities. This looks like a difficult case to clinch in view of the fact that Scott Ritter, the UN's former chief weapons inspector in Iraq, says the United Nations des troyed most of Iraq's wea pons of mass destruction and doubts that Saddam could have rebuilt his stocks by now.

According to Ritter, between 90% and 95% of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction were des troyed by the UN. He believes the remainder were probably used or destroyed during 'the ravages of the Gulf War'.

Ritter has described himself as a 'card-carrying Republican' who voted for George W Bush. Nevertheless, he has called the president a 'liar' over his claims that Saddam Hussein is a threat to America.

Ritter has also alleged that the manufacture of chemical and biological weapons emits certain gases, which would have been detected by satellite. 'We have seen none of this,' he insists. 'If Iraq was producing weapons today, we would have definitive proof.'

He also dismisses claims that Iraq may have a nuclear weapons capacity or be on the verge of attaining one, saying that gamma-particle atomic radiation from the radioactive materials in the warheads would also have been detected by western surveillance.

The UN's former co-ordinator in Iraq and former UN under-secretary general, Count Hans von Sponeck, has also told the Sunday Herald that he believes the West is lying about Iraq's weapons programme.

Von Sponeck visited the Al-Dora and Faluja factories near Baghdad in 1999 after they were 'comprehensively trashed' on the orders of UN inspectors, on the grounds that they were suspected of being chemical weapons plants. He returned to the site late in July this year, with a German TV crew, and said both plants were still wrecked.

'We filmed the evidence of the dishonesty of the claims that they were producing chemical and biological weapons,' von Sponeck has told the Sunday Herald. 'They are indeed in the same destroyed state which we witnessed in 1999. There was no trace of any resumed activity at all.'

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